Dog whelks-Digging deep

by Matthew Norton

Dog whelks (Nucella lapillus) are small sea snails, but they are also very ambitious predators who will attack barnacles, mussels and other shellfish that are bigger than they are. They cannot swallow their prey whole (and then spit out the inedible parts), or prise the shell apart with powerful claws. Instead they use the less common method of sliding onto the shell and then drilling into it using their radula, a conveyor belt of teeth that dog whelks have modified for drilling. To soften up the shell, making it easier to drill through, they release a chemical mixture of acids, toxins and ‘sticky’ proteins to (slightly) dissolve the shell material. Once they break through the shell dog whelks get really nasty by releasing more chemicals that turns the animal into a mushy soup that the they can suck up.

Dog whelk article image 1
Dog whelks are recognisable from teeth like ridges around the shell opening and the dense masses of yellow egg capsules they leave on the shore.

Despite these formidable weapons, dog whelks still face many problems while on the hunt, many of which are caused by the fact that it takes hours, if not days for them to break through each shell. So if they want to survive, they have to include some strategic thinking into their hunting activities. For example the long drilling time can leave dog whelks exposed to the harsh seashore environment and their own predators. When conditions are especially harsh, or their predators are close, dog whelks are more likely to hide away in rocky crevices, unless they are very hungry and the meal they desperately need is worth the risk.

Dog whelks also have to be careful in how they handle their prey. Firstly, they need the amount of food from a particular mussel (or other shellfish) to be worth the monumental effort they put into drilling through the shell. Some studies have shown that dog whelks prefer mussels of a particular size and focus drilling on the thinner parts of the shell, although this takes time to learn for inexperienced mussel hunters. Secondly, their prey sometimes fight back. In particular should a single dog whelk get too close to several mussels they may use their byssal threads to tie them down, leaving the dog whelk unable to move, or attack the mussels. If they cannot break free from this trap the dog whelk will die from starvation, or prolonged air exposure. It unsurprising that most dog whelks will hunt at the edges of dense mussel beds with only the occasional fool venturing further in.

Dog whelk article image 2
Byssal threads are strong fibres that mussels may sometimes use as an unconventional anti-predator device against dog whelks.

Dog whelks are one of those creatures that show, in gruesome detail, how nasty nature can be. However, this does not make them mindless eating machines, they still consider their options and potential risks while looking for their next meal. With their brains, or what passes for a brain in this little snail, they are unlikely to ‘think’ as much as we do, but dog whelks are still effective hunters, combining powerful weaponry with strategic ‘thinking’.

From a human perspective

Unlike most creatures in the sea, animals on the seashore have been within our reach for thousands (probably millions) of years and so have had more potential to influence human history and culture. In the case of dog whelks, and other closely related species, we having been using their flesh to make purple and violet dyes for centuries. Clothing dyed in “Tyrian purple” was particularly valuable in ancient cultures, often worth its weight in silver and worn as a status symbol. Archaeological finds have dated its use to at least the 13th century B.C. in the Mediterranean region and pre-roman times for much of Europe.

Dog whelk article image 3
For centuries we have been using dog whelks to dye clothes with purple and violet colours in various cultures.

Dog whelks would have been killed and crushed in vast numbers to satisfy the demand for this dye, which may sound excessively destructive, but this is nothing compared our more recent coastal activities. In particular our boats, both large and small, once had their hulls painted with a chemical called tributyltin (TBT) to prevent sea creatures from growing on it. Unfortunately, this had unexpected effects on dog whelks, causing females to grow male body parts by interfering with their hormones. This phenomenon is called ‘imposex’ and can make reproduction impossible for them by blocking up the tubes through which they eject their egg capsules, a blockage which can kill them as the capsules accumulate in their body.

Dog whelk article image 4
Biofouling organisms growing on the hulls of boats can be a real problem, but the chemicals used to prevent them from growing on the hull, especially TBT, can be deadly to all kinds of sea life.

Dog whelks were hit hard by TBT exposure during the 1970’s and 1980’s, especially near harbours and other boating hotspots, with populations being completely wiped out in some areas. Eventually, this issue was addressed with many countries bringing in partial bans on the use of TBT in the 1990’s, followed by a full worldwide ban in 2008. Since this action was taken TBT levels have been coming down, although many habitats will remain contaminated for a long time. To measure this decline we have been using the number of dog whelks that are still suffering from imposex as an indicator. Some have kept groups of dog whelks in cages in rivers and estuaries for several months while others have monitored natural populations on the shore for many years.

It is a sad fact that our actions have very destructive effects on sea life, whether intentional or not, and we are often slow to do anything about it. In the case of TBT its purpose was to be harmful to sea creatures, but we probably didn’t realise how effective it was, or that it could leak away from the hulls of boats. However, the actions we took (eventually) to reduce TBT contamination in the seas shows that we can learn from our mistakes.

dog whelk article image 5
Thanks for reading


Wikipedia. 2018a. Dog whelk. Last accessed 19/11/2018

Morgan. 1972. The influence of prey availability on the distribution and predatory behaviour of Nucella lapillus (L.)

MarLIN. 2007. Dog whelk (Nucella lapillus). Last accessed 19/11/2018

Carriker. 1981. Shell penetration and feeding by naticacean and muricacean predatory gastropods: a synthesis


Rovero et al. 1999. Automatic recording of the radular activity of dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) drilling mussels (Mytilus edulis)

Vadas et al. 1994. Foraging strategies of dogwhelks, Nucella lapillus (L.): interacting effects of age, diet and chemical cues to the threat of predation

Palmer. 1990. Effect of crab effluent and scent of damaged conspecifics on feeding, growth, and shell morphology of the Atlantic dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.)

Davenport et al. 1996. Observations on defensive interactions between predatory dogwhelks, Nucella lapillus (L.) and mussels, Mytilus edulis L.

Dupont. 2011. The Dog Whelk Nucella lapillus and Dye Extraction Activities From the Iron Age to the Middle Ages Along the Atlantic Coast of France

Cooksey. 2001. Tyrian purple: 6, 6′-dibromoindigo and related compounds

Wikipedia. 2018b. Tyrian purple. Last accessed 19/11/2018 

Karapanagiotis. 2006. Identification of the coloring constituents of four natural indigoid dyes

Clark and Cooksey. 1997. Bromoindirubins: the synthesis and properties of minor components of Tyrian purple and the composition of the colorant from Nucella lapillus

Wikipedia. 2018c. Tributyltin. Last accessed 19/11/2018

Gibbs et al. 1987. The use of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus, as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination

Gibbs and Bryan. 1986. Reproductive Failure in Populations of the Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus, Caused by Imposex Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints

Bryan et al. 1986. The Decline of the Gastropod Nucella Lapillus Around South-West England: Evidence for the Effect of Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints

Colson and Hughes. 2004. Rapid recovery of genetic diversity of dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus L.) populations after local extinction and recolonization contradicts predictions from life‐history characteristics 

BaSECO. 2006. Tributyltin pollution on a global scale. An overview of relevant and recent research: impacts and issues. Report to Dr. Simon Walmsley, WWF UK. Contract No. FND053998

World Wildlife Fund. 2008. Tributyltin canned. Last accessed 19/11/2018

Smith et al. 2006. Exploring the use of caged Nucella lapillus to monitor changes to TBT hotspot areas: A trial in the River Tyne estuary (UK)

Wilson et al. 2015. Declines in TBT contamination in Irish coastal waters 1987–2011, using the dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) as a biological indicator

Evans et al. 1996. Widespread recovery of dogwhelks, Nucella lapillus (L.), from tributyltin contamination in the North Sea and Clyde Sea

Image sources

Patrice78500. 2014. [CC BY-SA 4.0(

Boonekamp. 2008. [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (

Beckers. 2010. [CC BY-SA 2.0 (

All other images are public domain and do not require attribution

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s